Produced using the semi-conductor manufacturing process together with surface treatment, the membrane can be made hydrophobic, hydrophilic or bifunctional linkers for different applications, allowing samples under test to automatically adhere to the observation window for best image resolution. To ensure image quality, the membrane thickness is designed to be less than 30 nm, yet it is made robust by adjusting the window size and shape to withstand the pressure difference between the vacuum and atmosphere.
Combing with microfluidics and high-precision pogo pin with leak-free sealing design, the liquid sample holder is capable of controlling and monitoring the micro-environment. The microfluidics designs were optimized by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to achieve the best transportation model for the samples. The liquid sample holder has special mechanical design to boost the operation efficiency and can finish the sample loading within a minute. The electrical charging/discharging can also be transmitted to the control system and inside the microfluidics via pogo pin design. Additionally, the heat exchange fluid can be circulated in one of the flow channels, thereby accomplishing the functions of temperature control and fluid properties monitoring, allowing nano-scale in-situ testing of the samples under their original activity.